Biografia Giuseppe Ungaretti
Giuseppe UNGARETTI (1888-1970) s-a n─âscut ├«n Africa, la Alexandria. A tr─âit acolo p├ón─â la 23 de ani; ├«n 1912, a plecat nu spre Italia (╚Ťara p─ârin╚Ťilor s─âi toscani, atra╚Öi ├«n Egipt de construc╚Ťia canalului de Suez), ci spre Paris, pentru studii la Sorbona. T├ón─ârul Ungaretti ├«╚Öi reg─âse╚Öte originile peninsulare abia ├«n 1915, c├ónd se ├«nroleaz─â voluntar ├«n armata italian─â, intrat─â ├«n primul r─âzboi mondial! Nu va p─âr─âsi frontul, pe fluviul Isonzo ╚Öi ├«n alte locuri, dec├ót ├«n 1918 - pentru a se transfera cu regimentul s─âu ├«n Fran╚Ťa.
Al treilea continent din via╚Ťa autorului (devenit, dup─â r─âzboiul "re-├«n╚Ť─âr─ârii" sale, un distins universitar ╚Öi, fire╚Öte, un poet a c─ârui crea╚Ťie schimba, al─âturi de dou─â-trei altele, fa╚Ťa liricii post-dannunziene!) este America Latin─â. Dup─â un popas ├«n Argentina, el va fi profesor de italian─â la Universitatea din Sao Paulo, ├«n Brazilia, ├«ntre 1936 ╚Öi 1942.
Giuseppe Ungaretti (February 8, 1888ÔÇôJune 2, 1970) was an Italian modernist poet, journalist, essayist, critic and academic. A leading representative of the experimental trend known as ermetismo, he was one of the most prominent contributors to 20th century Italian literature. Influenced by symbolism, he was briefly aligned with futurism. Like many futurists, he took an irredentist position during World War I. Ungaretti debuted as a poet while fighting in the trenches, publishing one of his best-known pieces, L'allegria ("The Joy").
During the interwar period, Ungaretti was a collaborator of Benito Mussolini (whom he met during his socialist accession), as well as a foreign-based correspondent for Il Popolo d'Italia and La Gazzetta del Popolo. While briefly associated with the Dadaists, he developed ermetismo as a personal take on poetry. After spending several years in Brazil, he returned home during World War II, and was assigned a teaching post at the University of Rome, where he spent the final decades of his life and career. His fascist past was the subject of controversy.
L'Allegria is a decisive moment of the recent history of Italian literature: Ungaretti revises with novel ideas the poetic style of the poets maudits (especially the broken verses without punctation marks of Guillaume ApollinaireÔÇÖs Calligrammes), connecting it with his experience of death and pain as a soldier at war. The hope of brotherhood between all the people is expressed strongly, together with the desire of searching for a renovated "harmony" with the universe, impressive on the famous verses of Mattina:
(I flood myself
with light of the immense)
(Santa Maria La Longa, il 26 gennaio 1917)
In the successive works he studied the importance of the poetic word, as the only way to save the humanity from the universal horror, and was searching for a new way to recuperate the roots of the Italian classical poetry. His last verses are on the poem l'Impietrito e il Velluto, about the memory of the bright universe eyed Dunja, an old woman that was house guest of his mother in the time of his childhood. Here's the end:
Il velluto dello sguardo di Dunja
Fulmineo torna presente pietà
(The velvet in the bright gaze of Dunja
Rapid returns as present mercy)
Il porto sepolto ("The Buried Port", 1916 and 1923)
La guerre ("The War", 1919 and 1947)
Allegria di naufragi ("The Joy of Shipwrecks", 1919)
L'allegria ("The Joy", 1931)
Sentimento del tempo ("The Feeling of Time", 1933)
Traduzioni ("Translations", 1936)
Poesie disperse ("Scattered Poems", 1945)
Il dolore ("The Pain", 1947)
La terra promessa ("The Promised Land", 1950)
Un grido e paesaggi ("A Shout and Landscapes", 1952)
Il taccuino del vecchio ("The Old Man's Notebook", 1960)
Vita di un uomo ("The Life of a Man", 1969)